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AMERICAN ARCHITECT

FOUNDED 1876

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October 1932

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hese are hard times for the architect— but there Cc Hi A L K U Pp are encouraging signs on the horizon if we will only heed them. ano th er score Business is slow but it’s not at a standstill! Important ~~... im are still being conceived, drawn up and execute

against fear

Alf over the country there are men-in charge of big business who have not only kept their heads above

an d i ner t | ad | water but have gone confidently and courageously for-

ward, planning and building for the better days to come.

One of these projects—an important addition to the toster of, Architectural Achievements for 1932—is the new 20-tory Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company's building in Philadelphia.

Here is’a “depsession--orn” landmark of which “The City of Brotherly Loye” can well be proud! It’s a quality building in every respect and boasts a magnificent pair of Bronze:Doors which d@te probably among the finest ever cast. These, together with the Bronze Grilles, Windows and other Ornamental Metal Work, were fab- ricated and installed by Wm. H. Jackson Company.

Other important 1932 buildings for which Wm. H. Jackson Company’s Tile or Architectural Metal Work has been specified are listed below.

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ROCKEFELLER CENTER—Theatre No. 8

ew York

Architects— Reinhard & Hofmeister xt Corbett, Harrison & MacMurray Hood & Fouilhoux

Contractor—Barr, Irons & Lane

ROCKEFELLER CENTER—Theatre No.10 New York

Architects’ Reinhard & Hofmeister Corbett, Harrison & MacMurray Hood & Fouilhoux

Contractor— John Lowry, Inc.

BRONX COUNTY BUILDING Architects— Max Hausle & J. KH. Friedlander Contractor— Wm. Kennedy Const. Company

METROPOLITAN LIFE INS. CO. BLDG. Jew Yor Architects—D. Everett Waid arvey Wiley Corbett Contractor—Starrett Bros. & Eken

DIME SAVINGS BANK—Brooklyn Architects— Halsey, McCofmack & Helmer, Inc. Contractor—W m. Kennédy Const. Company

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING SOCIETY BUILDING— Boston Architect—Chester Lindsay Churchill Contractor—Aberthaw Company

U. S. BOTANIC GARDENS~— Washington Architects—Bennet, Parsons & Frost David Lynn Contractor—George A. Fuller Co.

INSURANCE CO. of AMERICA

New Yor

Architects—Shreve, Lamb & Harmon P 737 . . . s*.. ecges Sia-«. Contractor—A. L. Hartridge Co.

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Ww m. H. Jackson Company (Est. 1827) peadeces tit The new Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company Building, 9 types of ARCHITECTURAL METAL Philadelphia, Pa. Architect: Ernest J. Matthewson. Con-

cast, hand-wrought or machine pnts wnat tractor: Doyle & Company. Architectural Metal Work:

Bronze, Brass, Nickel, Wrought Iron, Aluminum Wm. H. Jackson Company

and the newer Non-Corrosive Alloys. These prod-

ucts include Casement and Double. Hung Windows

in both Bronze and Aluminum, and Ornamental

Metal Work of every description. This Company M, *

also maintains a SPECIAL TILING DEPART-

MENT which installs Outdoor and Indoor Swim-

ming Pools and all types of Exterior and Interior FOUNDRIES and FACTORIES: 335 Carroll Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. Tile Work. The Wm. H. Jackson Company's Con-

sulting and Collaborating Services developed New York Office: 2 West 47th Street, New York City

through wide experience in working on major products—are at your disposal without obligation.

“Masterpiece of American Homes”

—_— |

heated by a Petro Oil Burner

Basement arrangement proved to be drawing

card to thousands of visitors

Among the scores of model homes over the country in which Petro & Nokol oil burners have been installed is this beautifully designed house built by Henry Simons for the American Estates Company of

Indianapolis.

It was the cleanliness and quietness of the Petro oil burner that enabled the architect to plan a basement of unusual interest to the thousands who visited the house while open for inspection. The stairway to the basement leads toa large hall with a terazzo floor. The base- ment consists of a social room, rooms for a laundry, furnace, storage, toilet and lavatory. The social room is decorated in black, Chinese red, silverand gold. The same burner provides domestic hot water, eliminating the necessity of a gas heater.

In addition to making a complete line of Petro & Nokol oil burners for all types and sizes of domestic heating plants,Petro- leum Heat & Power Co. offers a com- line of commercial and industrial oil

urners for every type and size of boiler.

Oil Burners

PETRO

Noxko]

: Branch Offices: Fuel Oils

New York City Newark

Boston Portland, Me.

PETRO OIL HEAT pays for itself in buildings of every description. Every dollar spent for oil buys heating units. No ash or coal-handling charges. Higher boiler ratings are pos- sible. Depreciation of the boiler equipment is lessened. Full boiler pressure can be raised in a fraction of the usual time. Firing can cease on a moment’s notice. Oil delivery is quick and clean...and the smoke nuisance is entirely eliminated.

As a public service enterprise, provid- ing both the equipment and the fuel oil in our trucks from our own oil terminals, our responsibility to you is undivided.

This complete oil heating service is available in the East to every type of structure, regardless of its size or purpose, including large and small residences. The same equipment used in this 100% guar- anteed oil heating service, may be depend- ed upon wherever it is installed.

For Architects

“Every architect’s office needs e180 , authentic data on oil burning cial ' equipment. Certainly, one of the most helpful books on this sub- ject is your new Manual on Com- mercial and Industrial Oil Burning Equipment. Its form

Comme | \ndustie ons SUBMINS EQuiPmenT

° —_— " a <a is most unique and excellent

RIVERSIDE MEMORIAL CHURCH One of the most imposing structures designed is this largest parish church in the world, towering 25 stories. Petro equipment was chosen because it had proved so satisfactory in other buildings designed by Henry C. Pelton and Allen & Collens.

for easy reference. We welcome it to our office.”’ —Kenneth Franzheim, Arch.

F R E E—write for 24-page Bulletin G-1 that gives full details and specifications of Petro Model W, the leader in industrial and commercial installations.

PETROLEUM HEAT & POWER CO., STAMFORD, CONN. World’s Oldest and Largest Oil Heating Organization

Manufacturers of a complete line of oil burning equipment for every type and size of boiler

Baltimore Tacoma

Providence Detroit

Philadelphia

Washington Los Angeles

Portland, Ore.

FCR OCTOBER 1932

STRENGTH

UNIFORMITY

DEPENDABILITY

THE YOUNGSTOWN SHEET AND

GENERAL OFFICES -«- -«- « YOU

N

TUBE COMPANY GSTOWN, OHIO

Publications, Inc., 57th April 5th, 1926, at the

International class matter, 1879. Issue

published monthly by $3.00. Entered as_ second the act of March 3rd,

American Architect, Yearly subscription

rR

Street

Post

at &th Avenue, New York, N. Y. Office, at New York, N. Y., under

number 2612, dated October, 1932.

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

ASSURE LIFETIME WIRING

FLEXIBILITY

with G-E FIBERDUCT

G-E Fiberduct makes the ideal underfloor wiring system because of its reasonable cost, its flexibility and permanency. It cares for all present outlet needs as well as probable future requirements. Outlet fittings may be ob- tained to harmonize with office furnishings.

The specifying of G-E Fiberduct provides wiring flex- ibility for the life of the building. Its installation per- mits any change in office arrangement and enables owners to satisfy the present as well as tuture require- ments of their tenants.

The installation of a G-E Fiberduct system, assuring future wiring adequacy, enhances the value of any building and prevents premature obsolescence.

A descriptive booklet with full details and illustrations of the G-E FIBERDUCT SYSTEM will gladly be mailed you on request. Please write to Section CF-10010, Merchandise Department, General Electric Company, Bridgeport, Connecticut.

Tune in! Join the "G-E Circle" every week day at 5:45 P. M., ne , 7s <a ¢ * Pad 3 E. S. T. (except Saturday) N. B. C. Network of 54 stations. | pee : a" be en

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FOR OCTOBER 1932 3

ARCHITECTURE ALLIED ARTS

AN ARCHITECT MUSES

By Wm. Roger Greeley. Published by the Beacon Press, Boston. 98 pages; size 5!/, x 8!/4; price $1.60

HIS book by an architect whose charm of expres-

sion, whose manner of thinking is so typically archi- tectural, furnishes much food for thought. He muses on nine phases of architecture: on architecture as a necessity, a profession, a commodity, a business, a pas- time, as the vestal of the crafts, as an inspiration, as a personality and as a prophecy.

What he has to say is nothing to be passed by hur- riedly. Rather is it to be carefully considered, to be pondered on, to be used as leading to a greater under- standing of and for architecture in its various aspects. It is a book which the thoughtful architect will read and maybe reread before passing it on to his friends.

BUILDING By J. B. Van Loghem. Published by Kosmos, Amsterdam, Holland. Illustrated; 144 pages; size 7!/y x 10; price $3.50

NTERESTING pictures of buildings in Holland to-

gether with introductory text giving the philosophy of their plan and design. A condensed translation in French and English of the introduction, which is in Dutch, is included in this volume. The illustrations, which are well printed and well selected, are valuable as showing the modern tendency of architecture in Holland.

Factory in Rotterdam. J. A. Brinkman and L. C. van der Vlugt, architects. From Building"

BOOKS

ENGINEERING BUSINESS ECONOMICS

Plate from "Building a House in Sweden"

BUILDING A HOUSE IN SWEDEN

By Marjorie Cautley. Published by the Macmillan Com- pany, New York. Illustrated; 48 pages; size 7!/> x 8l/; price $1.75

OT a book for architects but for their children,

the eight and ten year olds who are fascinated by things done in far away places. The author is.a landscape architect who has travelled in Sweden and her story of the building of a little house there—and the part the children played in it—make an interesting tale. The illustrations by Helen Sewell are whimsical and well done.

NEGRO HOUSING

Report of the Committee on Negro Housing, President's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership, Commerce Bldg., Washington, D. C. Prepared for the Committee by Charles S. Johnson; edited by John M. Gries and James Ford. Illustrated; indexed; 282 pages; size 6x9; price $1.15

HOUGH, as stated in the foreword, “the negro’s

housing problem is part of the general problem of providing enough housing of acceptable standards for the low-income groups in our society,” yet this book goes far beyond the discussion of housing as such and examines the negro from the point of credit and desir- ability as a tenant. Some rather surprising figures are given, based on actual conditions, which indicate that the negro is not nearly so irresponsible as the average white person sometimes thinks. Figures compiled from housing developments for negroes are given, together with general information about their housing, both good and bad.

Some of the subjects covered are the physical aspects

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

XUM

TODD FUEL OIL BURNING EQUIPMENT

will heat the new ultra-modern apartment at 336 West End Avenue, New York City

, Fuel Oil Burning Equipment saves and saves—and SAVES. Back-

grounded by a 20 year experience in creating, designing, manufacturing and installing heating and power plants, the Todd Company has a defi- nite message of saving and efficiency for architects, builders and owners who require dependable, economical combustion equipment. There is much interesting and practical matter in the new Todd literature. Send for it.

TODD COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT, Inc.

Division of Todd Shipyards Corporation Foot of 23rd Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. HUguenot 4-3700

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BRB QWQk BBBBBQ@BaQ

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aa . pe Ney Meg a f 336 West End Avenue, New York City. This

new, smart apartment at the corner of Street oad : st End . ioann, Neu Yo rh, has a heating plant consisti ng ¢ of two low sure firebox type heating boilers of 130 frp. Z each. Each boiler is fired ‘be a Toad vena

type Fuel Oil Burner, burning heavy fuel oil JAM of 12-16° Beaume gravity.

FOR OCTOBER 1932

wt

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Inner court of Paul Laurence Dunbar Apartments for Negros at Harlem, New York City. From ''Negro Housing"

of negro housing, negro housing and the community, social and economic factors in negro housing, home own- ership among negroes, financing of negro home buying, housing projects for negroes and various recommenda- tions made by the committee. In many cases, surveys among whites and negroes are compared as an aid to fully understanding the responsibility of the negro and his housing problem.

The WOODEN WALL

TH STUCCO FINISH

one Parte (3 PLACED BETWEEN SHEATHING AND FURRING STRIPS

SYMBOL. USED |

WALLIN DETAIL:

WALL IS FRAMED FORA STUCCO INISH JUST THE SAME AS FOR. SHINGLES, LAP-SIDING OR ANY OTHER. FINISH EXCEPT THAT FURRING STRIPS he ARE ADDED TO HOLD THE METAL LATH AWAY FROM THE SHEATHING AS SHOWN. ye —_

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Plate from "An Introduction to Architectural Drawing"

AN INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING By Wooster Bard Field, A.|.A. Published by the McGraw- Hill Book Co., New York. Illustrated; indexed; 103 pages: size 9 x 12/44; price $2.50

N unusually interesting book on architectural draw- ing not only because of the way in which the subject matter is treated, but also because the choice of architectural details shows far better taste than is cus- tomary in books of this character. The pencil sketches

and drawings scattered throughout the book are also far above average in their technic.

The book is largely a collection of plates showing in pencil form the various exterior and interior details of a house with accompanying methods of indication and construction, as in the plate illustrated. Other types of plate in the book show construction details without the accompanying pencil sketches. Seven pages of pencil sketches of floor plans are included as study problems.

The author is associate professor of engineering draw- ing at Ohio State University.

THE WEATHERING OF NATURAL BUILDING STONES

By R. J. Schaffer, B.A., B.Sc. Published by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, London, England. Illustrated; indexed; 149 pages; size 6 x 91/5; for sale in the United States by the British Library of Information, 270 Madison Ave., New York; price $1.08

HE results of in- vestigations car- ried on for some years by the Build- ing Research Station are presented in this book, which dis- cusses the problem of the weathering of natural building stones. Not only the chemistry of mate- rials is discussed but also accidental causes of weathering such as smoke pollution. Some of the sub- jects covered in the Exfoliation of Headington Stone. book are: classifica- From “The Weathering of Natural tion of natural build- Building Stones 2 ing stones, weather- ing associated with natural defects inherent in the material, with faulty craftsmanship; with errors in the choice of materials, atmospheric pollution and chemical phenomena associated with weathering, soluble salts as agents of decay, preventive and remedial measures, etc.

MANUAL ON MODERNIZATION

Prepared by the Committee on Reconditioning, Remodel- ing, and Modernizing, United States Department of Com- merce. 41 pages; size 8 x |0!/,

TENTATIVE manual for conducting local modern-

izing campaigns issued by the Department of Com- merce is intended to assist cities and towns to stimulate business and employment, help owners maintain their property values, and in general promote community clean- up and beautification. It is based on a study of modern- izing campaigns conducted during seven months of 1932 in 65 cities, which reported approximately 49 million dollars worth of modernizing business. The manual includes organization procedure, duties of committees. samples of publicity, modernization checking list, mod- ernization contests, etc.

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

|

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37,000,000 cubicieel

-largest commercial building on the Grlantic seaboard

INLAND TERMINAL No. 1

Port of New York Authority

New York City

I this great warehouse, with its acres

of floor space, its multiform goods to protect and to handle efficiently, and its millions of dollars invested—here where durability enters so directly into profits, NATIONAL was used for the major pipe tonnage. As additional pro- tection against corrosion the well- known NATIONAL Scale Free Pipe was used for the smaller sizes of heating and sprinkler lines and NATIONAL Rust Resisting Copper-Steel Pipe for rain & leaders and drains which are constantly | ~©subject to atmospheric corrosion.

\ Not on sentiment or fancy, but on ma- * ture judgment, backed by technical 4 an

findings and practical knowl- 77) edge, as to what pipe would © result in maximum service and * satisfaction at minimum cost, "# was this selection made. Thus, ~~ from one source and another, . confirmation is given of the out- ieee «standing value of NATIONAL—

America’s Standard Wrought Pipe NATIONAL TUBE COMPANY

Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation

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No matter how complicated a structure this young builder may have in mind, his building materials insure structural simplicity. Builders of more advanced years, faced with the truly perplexing problems of modern construction, find their solution in the structural simplicity of C B Sections. That the contribution of C B Sections to the efficiency of structural steel has been of real value is shown by their extensive use in the more important construction of recent years.

CARNEGIE STEEL CompaANy - PITTSBURGH

Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation 200

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

rowel

as a surface for colored inks which are applied with a brush, when the linen is damp, over a drawing in black made similar to batik. Mr. Bindrum began painting at the age of fifteen. His work has been exhibited widely.

John Bindrum has chosen a new me- dium of expression for the illustration on this month’s cover—“Through the Trees’ —a colorful picture of the roll- ing country near North Hills, Long Island. Linen material has been used

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

(Trade-mark registered, U. S. Patent Office)

FOUNDED 1876 ° VOLUME CXLII ° NUMBER 2612

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Betts, A.I.A., Editor; TyLeErR Stewart Rocers, Managing Editor

WaLter E. Dexter, Advertising Manager; R. F. GarpNER, General Manager; C. STANLEY Tay Lor, Merchandising Consultant

OCTOBER 1932

Cover—A Water Color by John Bindrum

RUE WANG HAGAN HORNA he 0 bees eeenducesd es + What Architects Are Talking About............ 26 In the Rue St. Julien Le Pauvre, Paris.......... 10 Saving Time in the Drafting Room............. 28 By Burton Holmes By Albert C. Woodroof The Financiers Should Be Told................ 11 Things You Didn’t Learn in School............ 30 By Benjamin F. Betts ; ss Small House Shown at Boston Home Show...... 32 Chicago Architects Develop Ideas to Increase The High Cost of Birdseed............see000e: 34 Profits ......... rete e eee teen eee eee eeees 12 By Charles S. Kyson By F. Charles Starr : .

Fireplace and Oven in the Perry House, Flushing, Le Coq Gaulois Comes Down From Its Perch.... 14 RT Ns occ ann sed6ke0eseedkdsnnuen he's 36 By Samuel Chamberlain Aa Tt Lien to Cet BiG kos cv ecieacccidecsa 38 6 Basement Recreation Rooms......0.......... 16 Unusual Solutions of Unusual Structural Problems 40 Archaeology—Mostly American ............... 18 By W. S. Wolfe By J. Herndon Thomson

PN iss Ras aaa ORO FaRaD ORES 43 Damage Suits Against Architects for Negligence 22 Readers Have a Word to Say..............0. 75 By Clinton H. Blake Interior Walls and Wall Finishes............... 76 Ra eo 24 By William C. Ullrich, Taber Hofmann, Wil- OU CI, ina xo bad h aks dbs teen sbevenstens 93 bur H. Adams, Jane Pelton and Trent Elwood Sanford New Materials and Equipment................. 95

AMERICAN ARCHITECT. Published monthly by International Publications, Inc., 57th Street at Eighth Avenue, New York. Other offices, 919 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill.; General Motors Bldg., Detroit, Mich.; 132 Newbury St., Boston, Mass. William Randolph Hearst, President; Richard E. Berlin, Vice President; John Randolph Hearst, Vice President; Arthur S. Moore, Secretary ; Austin W. Clark, Treasurer. Copyright, 1932, by International Publications, Inc. Single copies, 50 cents. Subscription: United States and Possessions, $3.00 per year: $5.00 for two years; $6.00 for three years; Canada, $1.00 extra; foreign countries, $2.00 extra. Entered as second-class matter, April 5, 1926, at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. American Architect is protected by copyright and nothing that appears in it may be reproduced either wholly or in part without permission

FOR OCTOBER 1932 9

ie tines

TRE BVE ST. JULIEN LE FPAUVRE., PARIS

A-camera study by Burton Holmes from Ewing Galloway

4

| The Financiers

Should Be Told

BY BENJAMIN F. BETTS, A.1.A.

GENCIES that finance the construction of buildings can become powerful factors in furthering the use of the service offered by archi- tects. These agencies should be convincingly told of the economic and

protective value of such service.

Architectural service has a definite economic value that lending agencies should recognize and appreciate. It assures the utmost value for the money expended. Through good planning, good construction, good materials, archi- tectural service has a definite economic and protective value. Costly, unsus- pected extras can be eliminated through the architect’s foresight in providing against construction difficulties and providing for unusual equipment demanded by a specific type of building. The architect's specialized knowledge can save | the owner many legal pitfalls. His service can make sure that the right kind of building is built in the correct location.

Through its planning, legal and supervisory aspects, architectural service be- comes an essential safeguard to an owner’s financial investment. Architects offer an expert, specialized service, the purpose of which is to protect the owner. It is an unbiased service. It is a service that no one else in the building industry is qualified to render.

| M ONEY makes the wheels of the building industry revolve. Those who control this money are in a position to dictate to those who borrow. When | lenders are convinced of the economic and protective value of architectural service they will insist upon owners’ engaging a qualified architect.

It has been forecast that the near future will see new methods of financing projects. It is difficult to see how any radical change from present methods : can come about. But one that should be —and doubtless will be made is greater care in making loans on building projects. Building investments must be afforded better safeguards in the future than has often been the case during the past decade.

A properly developed and conducted campaign setting forth the value of architectural service from the investor’s and lender’s point of view should be launched now. This campaign should be directed toward all lending agencies. It is a type of business building effort that can be conducted nationally or locally : or in combination. Correctly handled it would mean more business for archi- tects, more better designed buildings and greater safety to building investments.

FOP OCTOBER 1932

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Chicago Architects Develop

Committee Makes Intensive Study That Shows

BY F. CHARLES STARR

General Manager of Schmidt, Garden & Erikson, Architects, Chicago, and Secretary of the Committee Conducting the Investigation

STUDY of architects’ business methods and prac-

tices has been completed after a year’s work by a

committee of Chicago architects. The purpose of this committee, which was appointed jointly by the II- linois Society of Architects and the Chicago Chapter, A. I. A., was to determine how the architect can increase his proper profit without sacrifice of service to clients or loss of professional dignity. The more important points in this study cover fees, cost accounting, shop drawings, owner-architect contracts, copies of drawings and specifications, damages for delays, charge for changes, and office efficiency. The recommendations of the committee follow.

FEES

HE most natural suggestion as to the best way to

increase profit is to increase the fee for architec- tural service. But to raise fees now is entirely con- trary to the trend of the times. A study of exist- ing schedules of proper minimum charges indicated much to be desired by way of change—primarily to pre- sent the matter more frankly and clearly to owners and thus show present fees to be fair and proper. Three ways of determining fees were recognized: first, a fixed pre-agreed fee plus the actual cost to the architect for executing his work. Second, an agreed minimum total lump sum. Third, a percentage of the cost of the work.

The committee considered a proper minimum fee based upon a percentage of the cost of the work for com- plete architectural services for various types of aver- age buildings to be as follows.

Group A: Industrial and mercantile buildings, fac- tories, office and governmental buildings: costing over $1,000,000, 5% ; costing under $1,000,000, 6%.

Group B: Schools and colleges, apartment buildings, hotels and clubs, banks, governmental and office build- ings, theatres and libraries: costing over $200,000, 6% ; costing under $200,000, 7%.

Group C: Hospitals and churches ; costing over $500,- 000, 7% ; costing under $500,000, 8%.

Group D: Residences: 10%

Group E: Alterations: 10%.

Group F: Landscaping: 12%.

Group G: Interior decorating and furniture monu-

ments and memorials: 15%.

12

When computing the amount of the architect’s fee, this fee, traveling expenses and salary of architect’s superintendent should not be included in the “cost of the work.” No reduction should be made from the archi- tect’s fee on account of (a) use of old materials, (b) items furnished by the owner, (c) penalties, liquidated damages or other sums which are withheld from pay- ments to the contractors, or (d) “savings” under any contract resulting at least in part from the efforts of the architect. In case of the abandonment or suspension of all or part of the project, the architect should be paid proportionately for whatever services he may have rendered.

When drawings and specifications are completed and approved by the owner, if the total of bids exceeds the amount the owner then wishes to spend and the architect makes changes in drawings and specifications to secure lower bids on a revised basis, the architect should be paid 75% of his basic fee, based on the total of original low bids received, and 25% of his basic fee based on the cost of the work as finally contracted for, plus three times the labor cost of making the changes.

Payments on account of architect’s fee should be made monthly. A guide to indicate the total fee due at various times is as follows: Total of 30% on completion of preliminary studies, total of 70% when working draw- ings and specifications are completed, total of 75% when bids are received and recommendations made for awards of contracts, total of 80% on completion of large sized and full sized details and the remaining 20% in proportion as the work proceeds. The complete total, including any extras due the architect, should be made payable on completion of construction.

If additional services are furnished, the architect should be reimbursed therefor as follows:

(a) Continuous supervision by a full time superin- tendent: Salary plus 10%.

(b) Changing drawings, specifications, or contracts, after once approved by owner: 3 times the labor cost.

(c) Transportation and living expenses, while travel- ing in discharge of duties connected with the

work: Charge at Cost.

(d) Telegraph and long distance telephone calls, nec- essary to expedite the work: Charged at Cost.

(e) Checking shop drawings and other necessary ad- ditional services, if separate trade contracts are let: Basic fee increased 4%.

(f) If construction work is executed on a cost-plus- fee basis: Basic fee increased 2%.

(g) If architect is put to labor or expense by reason of delays caused by the owner or the contractor, or by the delinquency or insolvency of either, or as a result of damage by fire or other casualty, he is to be equitably reimbursed for such extra services and expense.

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

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Ideas

To

Increase Profits

"Profit Leaks” and How to Avoid Them

(h) Blueprinting of an unusually large number of plans and specifications for securing bids. (Rea- sonable number should be agreed on).

(i) Where heating, ventilating, sanitary, mechanical, or electrical problems are of such a nature as to require special attention, an additional fee of 2% of the cost of the trades involved should be added to the basic fee.

(j) Special services such as process or acoustical engineering, water color or crayon perspectives, special drawings for renting purposes, etc.: Charged as agreed upon.

In commenting on the schedule of charges, the com- mittee recommended that a complete list of services to be furnished by the architect should be given the owner included in a revised schedule of proper minimum charges or a special memorandum, together with a state- ment indicating just what supervision is to be furnished.

COST ACCOUNTING

NE cannot study the question of architect’s fees

without realizing the deplorable general lack of proper cost accounting. How can an architect increase his profit if he does not know where his costs are ex- cessive or where he is losing money? The cost of keep- ing a reasonably detailed cost record is surprisingly small when actually in practice. The objection often raised that some items of expense cannot be specifically allo- cated, while partly true, is not justification for having no record.

A cost record should be kept of every job, the time of every man in the office being allocated each day to proper jobs or to some branch of overhead. Salaries should be charged against each partner as an item of cost production before profits are considered. Miscel- laneous items such as blueprints, travel, telephone, etc., should be charged against proper jobs or branch of over- head; other items such as rent, light, heat, sick leave, vacation, etc., should be proportioned.

If a uniform accounting system were used generally in architects’ offices, it would be helpful for the sake of comparisons.

CHECKING SHOP DRAWINGS

OSSIBLY one of the largest items of reducible ex- P pense in an office is that of checking shop drawings. One may say that the architect must check them in order to be sure that he gets what he wants and that all trades fit together. This is a fallacy—grown up from usage. Architects should not check shop drawings, for the architect’s duty is done when he shows by plans and specifications what he wants accomplished. A general contractor is paid a fee to completely construct a build- ing as planned and specified; one essential in that work is to properly correlate the work of all his sub-contrac- tors. The architect should merely look over the shop

FOR OCTOBER 1932

drawings to make sure that his design has been followed, for the contractor or his sub-contractors should not only make proper working or fabrication drawings but should also see that they fit the work of other trades. More- over, better bids will result if individual initiative and experience of tradesmen are secured through encourag- ing their own methods of fabrication.

It is suggested that a paragraph be included in the gen- eral conditions of the contract requiring that the con- tractor, before forwarding a shop drawing to the archi- tect, shall certify by a stamp or letter that he has care- fully checked it, that it conforms to the contract, and that it will not cause conflict with other trades.

With the increasing complications of modern construc- tion, the minute detailed checking and rechecking of shop drawings by the architect, often without even the cooperation of the contractor, has come to be a con- siderable burden and it is believed that the present pro- cedure is wrong and should be corrected. The one cau- tionary remark that should be made, naturally, is that the architect should always be sure that his contract drawings and specifications do show clearly what is to be accomplished, and never to specify the impossible.

OWNER-ARCHITECT CONTRACT

WRITTEN agreement of some kind should always

be secured before any work is done. If not will- ing to sign a complete service contract at the start, the client should sign an agreement to pay a certain sum for a preliminary study or whatever work he may want done with a proviso that if and when he decides to actually proceed with construction, he will then sign a complete service form of contract.

COPIES OF DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS

| prevent unwarranted duplication of drawings and specifications, it should be agreed in the owner-archi- tect contract as to how many copies will be furnished by the architect. If more copies are requested, they should be paid for by the party ordering them, be he the owner, bidder or successful contractor.

DAMAGES FOR DELAY U NJUSTIFIED expense to the architect is oc-

casioned when construction work is delayed an un- expected and unreasonable length of time. If operations are slowed down or temporarily stopped, the owner should reimburse the architect, provision for this being made in the owner-architect contract. The architect's fee is based on the assumption that construction work will proceed at a reasonable rate of speed for, after con- struction starts, it costs more, for example, to have an active job in an architect’s office for two years instead of one year. (Continued on page 86)

13

SAN HHP WIN ay was,

Le Coq Gaulois Comes Down From Its Perch

BY SAMUEL CHAMBERLAIN

ANY an inhabitant of the quiet town of Senlis

was startled by strange visitors this spring.

For days the ancient cobbled streets of the

town resounded with the footsteps of four festive stone masons carrying a strange time-stained object on their shoulders. At every doorway the cor- tege stopped while the leader of the quartet pulled the bell cord and proudly displayed the object to a surprised housewife, meanwhile hinting broadly for a tip. For the strange object was the weathercock from the cathe- dral spire, and a tradition dating back for centuries specifies that, whenever the peak of the cathedral has been reached by a steeplejack, the weathercock may be taken down and shown from house to house with the unwritten understanding that a “pourboire”’ is in order. One can hardly say that the custom has been abused, for this is the bird’s first descent in 120 years!

The French Government is now making thorough repairs on the venerable south spire of the cathedral, and a thick screen of scaffolding has gradually cloaked its graceful lines. Toward the end of April the scaffolding achieved the extreme peak of the tower, and the “coq Gaulois” came down for his brief visit, amid much cere- mony. The present work is carried on by the most ex- pert archaeologists and master masons on the Govern- ment staff, and promises to be long and arduous.

The tower was finished around 1230-1250. Seven centuries of northern French climate have left their mark. Many a crucial keystone sags. Eight German projectiles hit the tower in 1914, and if they caused no actual collapse, they shook the ancient joints badly.

14

The aged weathercock seems a bit defiant on his lofty perch, but at close range he loses all ferocity. He be- comes a rather droll creature, resembling the inflated rubber birds on which aquatic playboys are wont to dis- port themselves at Atlantic City. About three feet long and 20 inches high, he is cast in copper and weighs a good forty-five pounds. Different inscriptions on his battered sides indicate that he has undergone several surgical operations in recent centuries. Here is the list, carefully engraved on the greenish copper:

3ETOURNE 1690 RACCOMMODE PAR CAMIN FILs RACCOMMODE PAR TOUSSAINT-BETOURNE 1751 ET JACQUES GUIL, SONNEUR. 3ETOURNE 1769 RACCOMMODE PAR LE PERE BETOURNE GERMINAL AN IX Victor LEMAIRE 1808 MA TETE A ETE RACOMMODE PAR NICOLAS 3ETOURNE 1810.

The constant repetition of the name Beétourné is evi- dence that the care of the weathercock was entrusted to one family of artisans, and passed on from father to son to grandson. The name still persists in the locality, but the Bétourné’s are now less adventurous. They are all farmers.

Twice in recent history an audacious alpinist has suc- ceeded in climbing up the spiny surface of the spire as far as the rooster, without the aid of ropes or scaffold- ing. In June, 1731, an innocent-looking young man obtained permission to climb (Continued on page 86)

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

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DRYPOINT BY SAMUEL CHAMBERLAIN

IT TOPPED THE CATHEDRAL OF SENLIS

Whenever the weathercock comes down from its perch on the cathedral spire, the owner-for-a-day proudly takes it from house