LEWIS COUNTY

IN THE

CIVIL WAR 1861-1865

ROY BIRD COOK Author of

“‘The Family and Early Life of Stonewall Jackson,’’ ‘*Collins Settlement of Old,’’ Ete.

1924 JARRETT PRINTING Co. 796-708 Donnally Street CHARLESTON, W. V4.

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br. Thomas Ri. Camilen Presley M. Hale Alesander Seatt Withers George Jackson Arnold Willlam E. Arnold 1528-1916 1826-1916 1792-1864 1818-1889 Si 7-Le oy

Dy. Newion B. Barnes John Brannon Jonathan M. Bennett Mathew Edmisten 1807-1873 TS21-1907 1815-1887 1844-1887

SOME PROMINENT CITIZENS OF THE CIVIL WAR PERIOD

Table of Contents

Editor’s Preface mek) ee es ind ope ee a es de Sagi ORGIES ak CT me meme lee, me

I. The Secession of Virginia and Formation of West Virginia

II. Weston, the County Seat - = = © 8 we 20 Ill. The Virginia Militia and the State Troops «- < - 27 IV. Gleanings from the Lewis County Press - - =| «= 32 V. Military Operations 1861 - = = = = © « 40 VI. Military Operations—1862 - - = = «© = «= = 55 VIE. Military Operations 1863 a 62 VIII. Military Operations 1864-1865 - - = « 83 TX. Prisoners of War and Camp Chase <= - - = = 93 X. Guerilla Warfare and Local Strife - - - - = = 164 ; XI. Lewis County Citizens in the Confederate Army - = Liz XIi. Lewis County Citizens in the Federal Army - - - < 128 AIil. Stonewall Jackson in Lewis County - <= - = = 146 RIV. William McKinley, the Soldier,in West Virginia «- - - 149

XV. Memories: When a Ghost Is Nota Ghost - - -+- = 162

Editor’s Preface

The military operations in the central counties of West Virginia during the American Civil War had an influence and bearing upon the outcome of the fratricidsl strife greater than has been generally ascribed. Strange as it may seem, bot little has been written of the movements of the armies in interior West Virginia. In a general way the military movements have been dwelt upon in proportion to their relation to larger operations and battles, but the local character scems to have been passed without much notice.

The significance of the operations in Lewis and adjoining comnties cannot be measured by the number of troops engaged in holding the section, or by the fact that no great battle was fought within the sector upon which hinged the fate of armies or of the nation itself. The importance of holding the central counties within the lines of the Federal army, and of holding the loyalty of the citizemry to the Federal govern« ment, was the fact. that it offered a barrier to the armies of the South and prevented the establishment of their military limes along the borders of Ohio and Pennsylvania. Protection to the national capital was given by holding open the lines of communication between the east and wast, and finally Federal contro! of northwestern Virginia was definitely determined, where allegiance to the Mother State and the Union was divided. And it was through this control that the leaders of the west and northwest secured the establishment of the new State of West Virginia, the culmination of a more than ninety years’ effort om the part of western Virginia to secure a separation from the Old Dominion.

Weston, holding the gateway to all points im the interior, by reason of its strategic position became a military post within the very first months ef the war, and with the exception of brief intervals waa ccanpied as such until the close of hostilities. Troops of both armies held the town at different times and the surrounding country felt the heavy hand of raiders and hangers-on of the armies of both the North and South. The military movements from the post at Weston dominated the seation and especieily was this true in the many outposts and detachments of troops sent ont to contre! or hold im check the marauding hands of “bushwhackers” or “independent rangers” who held forth in the mountain fastnesses and preyed wpon the citizenry withowt much regerd to ‘ullegiance, or upon either army as occasion presented or the whim of the leader directed.

Mr. Ceok has delved deeply inte the history of the period ef which he writes and has spared mo pains to secure accuracy of material. From the great masa of date compiled the story of the participation of Lewis County and its citizens in the Civil War has been prepared; a story that is complete almost to the last detail and presented in a manner that is entirely free from rancor or partisan bias.

BOYD B. STUTLER.

Charleston, W. Va. September 1, 1924,

Foreword

The story of Lewis County, West Virginia, in the Civil War, meager and incomplete though it may be, is the outgrowth of a desire to see recorded in some permanent form such details as can be cwllected of the record of her sons during that fratricidal strife. first appeared ag an, historical serial in the “Weston Independent” tm 1919, largely docu. mantary as to source and compiled from official records, public doom. ments, old newspapers and letters generally believed to be reliable. Aside from the unpublished personal memoirs of Dr. Thomas Bland Camden (1829-1910), it would appear that in the fifty-four years that had elapsed no effort had been made by any one to set down any records of a local nature. Indeed this phase of the history of all county units in West Virginia has been largely overlooked.

There is no discussion of the reasons for this war, designated by those of the far North as the “War of the Rebellion: in the more Southern States as the “War between the States” and by us of the border, usually, if not always, as the “Civil War," The writer, among thousands of others, was born of a family that saw service on both sides, and was reared among the declining numbers of brave men who fought for the right as they sew it. In 1886 over 250 ex-Federal soldiers attended a reunion at Weston; in 1900 2 reunion of the Blue and the Gray found almost. as many of both sides, and in 1924 a local paper records that five had gathered for a little social affair in the same community, Likewise, a survivor of the Army of Northern Virginia helped compile names for this undertaking and within a few months laid down his earthly labors. The survivors are banded together now in a fight against = common foe. dust as they banded together in the post-bellum day ta help build Up a great county in a great State. And may we of this generation not take pride in the reflection that they were American soldiers representative of the Nordie spirit. Down in Virginia lie side by side Generals William R. and James B. Terrill, both of whom died for principle as they saw it, one of whom served and died under the Stars and Stripes, the other under the Stars and Bars. A world of thought ia reflected in the simple inscription on the monument which says: “This monument erected by thelr father. God alone knows which was right.”

But little stress ia laid on the so-called “Reconstruction” days. Happily and truthfully it may he said that there was little of bitterness in this region, when compared with other sections, The “Weston Demo- erat” on May 11, 1879, saya: “We are informed that a band of Kia Klux was s¢en in the Stone Coal neighborhood on the ist.” They numbered about thirty and after listening to an address they dispersed. indeed, the identity may be questioned. Thera wes no need for such avidences ef public interest as in the more southern regions, and within a very short time men who wore the gray were working hand im hand with, neighbors who had marched away in a uniform of bine.

8 LEWIS COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR

No one more than the writer is aware of the imperfections of this little volume, and that errors may be present is quite possible, Lf, however, it helps preserve some of the history of that period and brings into being a volume much better, then its mission will have been fulfilled.

Mention is made in the text in many cases of the origin of information contained therein. But the writer is indebted for assistance, in addition to those named, from Hon. Robert L. Bland, E. G. Davisson, Mrs. M. ©. Edwards, and the late Leander Troxell, of Weston; the late John &. Camden, of Parkersburg; Hon. Thomas J. Arnold, of Elkins; Mrs. M. M. Eaton, of Pittsburgh, Pa.; and Clifford R. Myers, State Historian and Archivist, and Miss Florence Schum, Librarian of the Department of Archives and History of West Virginia, of Charleston. Especial mention. is due Boyd B. Stutler, well known war historian of Charleston, who kindly checked up the manuscript in an endeavor to make it as free from errors as possible.

ROY BIRD COOER. Charleston, W. Va. July, 1924.

750 Wy al IDAHO j ALLS, {0 CHAPTER ONE THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA AND FORMATION OF WEST VIRGINIA

The year 1860 found the whole State of Virginia in a condition of wildest commotion, unequaled in the previous history of the Common wealth. While it was the outgrowth of feeling gathering for pears, it was brought to a ¢limax by the daring ettempt of John Brown at Yarper’s Ferry. Untrue aa it may have been, there was a feeling that this was the result of a formidable conspiracy om the part of the Naxth te crush the institution of slavery in the South.

Throughout the eastern section of the State, meetings were held im which thousands heard from the lips of eloquent orators the picturing of the future of Virginia when she should be the corner stone of a new republic. By December, in Botetourt County, John J. Allen, a son-in-law of John G. Jackson, and a former member of Congress from Clarksburg, @yafted resolutions concerning “the present alarming conditions of omy country, to give some expression of their opinion upon the threatening aspect of public affairs’ which spread like wildfire throughout the eounties east of the Alleghenies. In western Virginia public feeling was no less, even though directed along somewhat different lines.

The Civil War was, of course, the occasion and the opportunity for the separation of western Virginia and the erection of a new State, of which Lewis County is a component part. Yet there were always points of differences between the two peoples, brought about largely by different origin, separated by a mountain barrier. Virginia sloped to the Atlantic Ocean and the rising sun, and western Virginia to the Ohio and the setting sun, Six deeades ago Lewis County was smali and poor, being principally neted for ber virgin forests, live-stock market, and es the home of 4 number of brilliant barristers who wrested from the tidewater politicians whet little internal improvements she did get.

Leeal interest in polities at least until after the Constitution of 1862, was miestly centered in matters of State and National concern, But Major Theodore F. Lang cites that for years every candidate for the Virginia Assembly was sounded as to his sentiment concerning the separation of the State. It was always felt that the eastern slawe holders wielded tec much influence in the Richmond junta. Manhood suffrage after 1852 only relieved matters slightly, the slave population still being counted. But people in Lewis were only mildly interested in slavery, as a social or economic institution. No one in the county ever owned any number of them.

Jacob Lorentz, Colonel Edward Jackson, hia son Cummins, and Alex ander Scott Withers in early years had beld as many as twelve, Minter Bailey had owned ten, Weedon Hoffman seven, William E, and George

>

IDAHO & FAMILY ». o S ; tLS

10 LEWIS COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR

3. Arnold from one five. None were ever mistreated and the feeling of attachment by them to their owners was clearly refleoted by thelr adherence to the families even down to the time of the writer's boyhood, To be sure people recalled an occasional sale held im front of the old eourt house, the slave mounting a stoeme that stood im the yard, and once people lined the wall in front of the Bailey House as twelve or more chained together, marched through town to a notorious market in Harrison County. Lewis County, with a population of 7.999 in 1960, and 1,633 houses therein, claimed ownership of 368 slaves and there were 22 free colored, In the whole eight counties of the Monongahela Valley theré were 1,366 slaves, and of this number Harrison County owned as many as the other seven,

There was, of course, after the John Brown attack at Harper's Ferry a feeling that local trouble might arise, and from Bichmond were sent one hundred flint-lock muskets, which, being distributed te the Boegess company of Home Guards, was deemed sufficient te put down a like undertaking, Fortunately, however, no such need arose and later the possession of these muskets, such as were left after Alfred Jackson’s company left for Dixie in the beginning of the War, often got the owner innocently into trouble.

At the general election of 1860, the Republicans, whose cause had created such a turmoil four years before, came to the front with Lincein and Hamlin as standard bearers. Local feeling became intenge, and it was agreed that the final disposition of slavery rested woon the Presi- dential selection, The Democrats were in the majority in Lewis, acu indeed their power gave the county a power in the Assembly which reached far beyond its own narrow confines. This is clearly reflected in the location at Weston of a branch of the Exchange Bank of Virginia, one of the first in western Virginia: the location of the Trans-Allegheny Lamatie Asylum; and the appointment of Jonathan M. Bennett as Firet Auditor of Virginia by Governor Henry A. Wise.

The election was eomplicated by the goveral iseves within party ranks, added, of course, to all the other elements of the time. The Democrats were split Inte a northern wing headed by Stephen A. Dotigias and # southern wing headed by John ©. Breckenridge. The remnants of the once powerful Whig party under the head of the Constitutional Unies Ticket wes headed by John Bell, of Tennessee, Several public meetings were held in Weston, and one of the most stirring addresses was made from the porties ef the old court house in an open-air meeting by Jol D. Imboden, a young lawyer and clerk of the Augusta County Court, of Staunton. He was a son af George Imboden, formerly residing on Skin Creek, an elector for the Bell and Everett faction, and who was deatined to a few months later again come inte the community as a brigadier geners! with a body ef Confederate troops.

The final election returns in Lewls gave Breckenridge 604, Bell azz, Douglas 247 and Abraham Lincoln pone. Western Virginie exhibited @s great number of opinions as any section in the United States.

THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA it

Greckenridge carried 18 counties, Bell 15 and Douglas 2. Hancock Oounty was evenly divided between Lincoln and Breckenridge. Lincoln received 1,929 votes, nearly all from the “Panhandle” region, and was elected with 180 electoral votes.

Then for a few weeks came a lull, interspersed with a few meetings throughout the State, but at last in Richmond, teward which all eyes were turned, Governor John Letcher on November 16th issued a procla- mation calling into extra session the Assembly to convene January 7, i861, William E. Arnold represented the county in the House of Dele- gates and John Brannon served in the Senate, After one of the stormiest sessions in history a resclution was pasted calling for a convention of the people of the State te meet in the following month,

In the meantime a call for a mass meeting was issued from Weston, and on December 10th a great public gathering took place, presided over by Caleb Boggess, in which resolutiond of loyalty to the Union were adopted, and a feeling reflected that it would be best to let the Cotton States secede, but Virginia to keep out of it. This was followed by a meeting at Hall's store on Freemans Creek on December 22nd with Rev, John Law as Chairman and William Halterman, Seeretery, Several addresses were made, and on motion of Esias Petty, “The preamble and resolutions reported by Caleb Boggess" were unanimously approved.

The feeling of despondency that was enveloping the entire country is reflected in the minntes of the Exchange Bank of Weston. On Wedines- day, January 2, 1881, the board met, composed of C. J. Moore, President; A. A, Lewis, D. 5. Peterson, Blackwell Jackson, E. S. Bland and Johmn- son N. Camden. It was ordered that “this office be closed on Friday next, the 4th inst. in compliance with the recommendation of the Presi- dent of the United States (James Buchanan} appointing it as a day of humiliation and prayer.”

On the fourth of February, 1861, the citizens of Lewis County selected Mr. Boggess as their delegate to the Richmond Convention, defeating Dr. W. J. Bland. He was a son-in-law of Judge Gideon D. Camden, a former resident of Weston, later a delegate from the Richmond meeting te the Confederate Congress at Montgomery and a strong southern leader. Boggess at once left for Richmond with John §. Carlile, of Harrison County, and the memorable convention convened om the thir- teenth following.

With cenditions in such 4 state at that time we cam easily imagine the tension existing ameng the people of the county, and in fact all Virginia. Tt must be recalled that before the convention adjourned the only tele- graph line thet crossed the mountains had been cut at Harper’a Ferry, and it tock several days for news to reach Weston. Maxwell saya “At Weston and Clarksburg men stecd locking each other im the face, enly te see reflected back the same feelings which were locked silent in their ewn bosoms. But when the delegates did return, the same old jealousies that had been rankling in the east and west side of Virginia again came welling up.”

12 LEWIS COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR

Boggess voted against secession and left Richmond about April 20th, and at the adjourned session, on June 20th, he was reported absent be the Commitiee on Ahsent Members. On November 20th the Commitice on Elections reported that its mambers were satisfied that Caleb Bogpess was absent from the convention by reason of disloyalty to the Commoan- wealth of Virginia and the Confederate States and should be expelled. Of the return trip and local conditions and feelings at that time, much may be gleaned from éxtracts of letters follawing-—-written to Granville Davissen Hail—the first under date of April 26, 1861, from Clarksburg, which in part says:

“Jndge G. D. Camden has gone to Richmond, it ia thought, to consalt with the Governor on the propriety of miaking arrests, Camden is an arch-secessionist. The residence of Oaleb Boggess, Union delegate from Lewis County, was burned by secessionista yesterday.” This latter statement is net, however, supported by very good evidence, as the burn- img is said to have been accidental, His home steod on what is now part of the Weston State Hospital grounds.

Hon. James C. McGrew, of Kingwood, wrote that. the act of secession was passed in the afternoon of April 17th and conditions became eo seri- eas that John 8. Cariile started home, On the 20th about twenty dele gates met in General John J. Jackson's rooms, decided to ga home, cali mass meetings and report what had been done. Accordingly, on the 2st a party of fourteen left the city, but at Alexandria were compelled to again turn their faces toward Richmond. Upon reaching Managsas Junction they left the railway train and hired conveyances over the mountains to Winehester, where they secured transportation home, Among the party were General Johm J, Jackson and Caleb Boggwss. “Caleb Boggess was elected by the Unioniste in Lewis County and was trne to his constituents in his votes in the convention, voting uniformly with his Union colleague. He was, I believe, a true manly man.”

Boggess and the other delegates at once took up the task of account. ing for their stewardship and the dissemination of the resulis of v eonvention at Richmond. John S. Carlile hastened to Weston, where ot Tuesday, May Tth, he addressed a large gathering at the court house, This was followed the next day with a maas mesting at which addresses were made by Boggess and ex-Governor Joseph Johnson, designated by the “Weston Herald” as the “Old War Horse.”

In the meantime a mass meeting had been held at Clarkshurg on April 22nd, at which time addresses were made in favor of the separa- tion af the State, and calling for delegates to be selacted to athend a convention at Wheeling, A special edition of the “Western Virginian Guard,” published by C. Z. Ringler, was hastily issued embodying this call; coples were rushed by men on horseback to Weston and other points where they were posted in public places. Men in favor of thie atep at once made arrangementa for 4 meeting, said to have been held at the steve of P. M. Hale, and E. M. Chalfant, A. &. Withers, J. W. Hudson, P. M. Hale, Jesse Woofter, W. L. Grant and J. A. J, Lighthurn were

THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA ta i3

appointed delegates to the first Wheeling Convention, which assembled at Washington Hall, in Wheeling, on May 13, 1861. The purpose of the eonvention was to take action in case the vote of the secession ordinance earried, Many were in favor of establishing a new State at once, but it remained for Francis H. Pierpont to evolve a plan by which a semblance of constitutional right could be maintained in the method of doing sa. Alexander Seott Withers, of Lewis, was appointed a member of the Committee on State and Federal Relations. Jt was moved and adopted that « special election be held June 4th for the election of delegates te a second convention te further devise such measures as the people deemed best.

On Monday, May 13th, in the firet convention, John S. Carlile said: “{ went on last Tuesday to Lewis County, where they have been under a system of intimidation, and despite the threat of arms and mob and the charge of the judge to hang me for treason, | addressed the people, and they are represented here today, and if they are not intimidated they will give 1,000 majority against the ratification of the ordinance of secession,”

The election on May 23 resulted in the counties now forming West Virginia casting 44,000 votes, of which 40,000 were for the rejection of the ordinance. Within the county limits a few supporters were found at Bennett's store (Walkersville), Hall's store on Skin Creek and im the tewn of Weston.

People by this time were largely divided into three classes: those who

desirad a separation of the State at once and who declared unfailing loyalty te thea Union; those who expressed loyalty to the Union but ware not in faver of a breaking wp of the old State, with perhaps a trace of feeling for the South; and those who were out and out for the Confed- erecy. Public officials were at once placed in a precarious position. The convention at Wheeling on June 12th passed en ordinance providing “that all officials should take an oath to eaupport the reorganized. govern- “fient or the Governor could declare their office vacant. At Richmond Ton June 27th the Assembly declared that any person holding an office under the National Government “shall forever be banished by the State and is declared an alien enemy.”

The pronounced feeling at Weston in such matters is clearly shown in the apparent secretive way in which it was necessary to hold Union meetings, and indeed it wag not until 1862 that the people really vigor- ously swung to the support of the Federal Army. In the meantime practically all who openly supported the Confederacy had gone “South” in some capacity, but throughout the year 1861, even with Federal treops in charge, the Confederate Government kept in touch with local matters, B. P. Swayne, an employee in the Auditor's office at Richmend, was dis- charge! in October simply because he was born in Pennsylvania, re- turned home November 23rd and cited that letters went back and forth with ease, An attempt was even meade te thwart the activities of the first, Wheeling Convention, a cireular letter heing sent out from Weston

4 LEWIS COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR

on June 18th urging a counter convention to be held at Lewishurg for the purpdse of checkmiating the Wheeling government. Throwghout the year northern newspapers bitterly assailed western Virginia for the lack of volunteers in the Federal Army, claiming that there was “a great deal more willingness to talk than to fight.” Yat the chaotic candition of affairs did much to leave the citizens in a position where they did not know what to do.

The election of delegates to the second Wheeling Convention regulted in the selection of J. A. J. Lightburn, of Lightburn’s Mills, later a brigadier general in the Federal Army, and P. M, Hale, a rising young merchant of Weston. The convention convened on June Lith and was in session antil June 25th. Here was evolved the plan of the reorganized Virginia government and on June 20th Francis H. Pierpont was elected Governor. J. A. J. Lightburn and Henry H. Withers served on @ oni mittee to consider a division of the State. Blackwell Jackson, senater- elect to the Virginia Assembly, was added to the list of delegates, and it was ordered that the Assembly reconvene Angust 6th, The first General Assembly under the restored government was called to meat on July ist, and at the opening session the names of P. M, Hale amd George J. Arnold are listed as delegates. Hale had been elected to the convention and Arnold to the General Assembly in the last election under the old Virginia government and was, of course, entitled to a seat mm the Assembly then in session. He subsequently appeared and took pert in all the proceedings. In a public address before the Assembly he stated that be was in favor of saving the Union by meana of the basis provided by the Federal Constitution, which indeed was a mooted point in the minds of all. As to the attitude of Lewis he declared another speaker “mistakes the people of Lewis County when he supposes they are opposed to a compromise of this war,” showing that there yet remeined a faint hepe on the part of many able men that something could be done concerning the position of Virgmia, Mr. Arnold showed a deep study of constitutional law and presented an able constraction of the principles thereof. But the fact that he bad owned a few slaves, and was net thoroughiy in sympathy with the methods being adopted, created a feeling hard to ovéreome. Yet it is cited that he wrote the act creating the new State of West Virginia and was thoroughly opposed to secession, Indeed the convention of August 6th, in appointing a committees on which Blackwell Jackson, who qualified as Senator July Sth, served, agreed “that a large majority of the good and loyal citizens of western Vir- ginia are in favor ef a division of the State, yet there seems to exist a difference of opinion as to the proper time, as well as the proper means to be naed.”

Ow August 20th there was adopted an “ordinanee to provide for the formation of a new State out of o portion of this State,” to be voted upon Thursday, October 24, 1861. In Lewis County only 455 votes wera cast fer the ordinance and 12 against. The presence of Federal troepe no doubt prevented a complete expression of the views of those who

THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA 15

sympathized with the Confederacy, This was followed by the eal? for the first Constitutional Convention te meet Nevember 26th. Judge Robert Irvine (1814-1875) was elected representative from Lewis County, and Gibson J, Butcher served as clerk. The final vote on the amended Constitution wae 506 for and 4 against.

In the next session of the “restored” Assembly which met from Decem- ber 2, 1861, te February 13, 1862, an appropriation of $21,084.00 was made with which to prosecute the work on the Northwestern Lunatic Asylum at Weston, This was derived according to the auditor's report of September 30th from $27,000.00 received from the “Lunatic Asylum west of the Alleghenies.” At the same session provision was made for the organization of troops for the Pederal Army.

During all this time Lewis County was, according to the inclinations of the citizens, undergoing the experience of serving under two State governments. County government at different times during the war ceased to function, and some public officers who were probably opposed to secession refused to acknowledge the Wheeling government. Indeed one went so far as to send $3,575.30 collected from judgments as eom~ missioner of delinquent and forfeited lands te the Richmond faction.

James Wilson was sheriff during 1960 and until January 4, 1961, when he resigned. For some months before and a few weeks after the resig- nation of Wilson, there was not even a deputy sheriff. Joseph Matthews was appointed crier for the courts on January 15, 1861, but some mem- bers of his family later enlisted in the Confederate Army and he was removed from office by the “restored” government. He was succeeded by Allen Simpson on October 5th, who again took office January 1, 1863, and served until December 21, 1866. A committee appointed to examine the auditer’s office, however, reported on September 28, 1863, that Lewis County had no sheriff “because of the danger incident thereto.”

The judge of the circuit court in 1860 was William L. Jackson, Jr. His first orders were entered October 8, 1860, and the last May 9, 1861. He left his office and later became a brigadier general in the Confederate service and several from the county served under him. From this time until May 2, 1862, the county had no judge. From May 2nd until West Virginia was admitted to the Union, Judge Arthur I. Bereman, of Parkersburg, presided over the court and indeed it seems did so before the date named. On January 2, 1862, he wrote to Governor Pierpont, concerning the status of affsirs in the county as follows:

“Some week or two since I heard that the three prisoners (W. G. Plar- son and others) arrested for murder in Lewis County, had been reseved from the civil authorities of Lewis while in the act of examining their eases before the examining board, but I said nothing about it from the fact that it was done by order ef General Rosecrans. It is idle to tell the people that we will administer justice in the courts and carry away prisoners without any reasonable explanation for eo deing. Since this transaction in Lewis County, law-abiding citizens do mot know what to do and we may as well quit and hand the government of the country

i6 LEWIS COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR

ever te the military at once. I do net believe that General Rosecrans would be sustained in what be has done in Lewis County by the authors ities in Washington. Tf I can not set om the bench untramelied, [ will not set at all.”

The session of the Assembly that met in Richmond December 2, 1862, to March 31, 1862, had representatives from nineteen counties now in West Virginia. John Brannon continued as senator from Lewis, with no one in the House. The Confederate soldiers elected Mr. Brannon and Dr. William J. Bland to the session that met from December 7, 1662, te March 10, 1864. This marked the last connection of the county in any way with the legislative bodies of the old State of Virginia.

In the spring of 1862 the citizens of the county entered upon a period marked by numerous mass meetings, usually participated in and pre- sided over by the same men. To 4 student of political affairs of that time there is brought to mind the curious fact that in Lewis County, as well as in many others, a large number of men who were Union and new State men, were born in eastern Virginia.

On the liste of Confederate soldiers are found a number whe were born farther nerth. It would naturally be presumed that the situation would be reversed.

On May 9th a meeting was held at the court house in Weston te determine the feeling of the people in the matter of the selection ef a Governor, and such other public mattera. H. Daugherty waa elected Chairman and IE. M. Tumstill, Secretary. Minter Bailey, Allen Simpann, 3. T. Osborn, T. 5. Norris and Dr. J. A. Hall were nemed a committee on resolutions. They finally reported that Francia WH. Piernont and the other appointed officials of the “restored” government ahould be elected, and reiterated their support of the Union. Commenting on the counec- tion of the Lewis delegate with the restored assembly the report says “We wholly disapprove of the course pursued by our delegate-elect im failing to go to the called session now assembled at Wheeling. He should have gone or resigned.” The report was adepted, as well aw a resolution introduced by Mr. Osborn calling for a meeting on the 12th “49 express our opinions in regard to the return of persons (once citi- gens} to the county who had been engaged in the attempt to destroy the Government.”

The meeting which followed on the 12th was presided over by H, Daugherty with William L. Dunningion as Secretary, A resolotions committee was appointed composed of F. M. Chalfant, Dr. J. A. Hall, P. M. Hale, Esias Petty, Richard Halli, Jesse Boussce, Aaron F. Peter- son, B. Hawks, John Lyttle and Luke Murray, The committee retired and the convention Ustened te a “rousing” speech by Dr. Hell. A report was filed and adopted declaring intentions to uphold the Union, and it was moved that these persons living in our midst whe have never left their homes to take any part in the war, “professing loyalty, and in many inatances having confirmed the same with an cath, must preve their faith by works,” in case of emergency and must support the Union

THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA 17

and the State. “The rank and file of eur secession neighbors whe return to this county loyally and in good faith, shall reeeive our warmest aym- pathy and we extend a welcome.”

Following the call of President Lincoln for 300,000 volunteers, a meet- ing was held Angust 1ith with Dr, J. A. Hall, Chairman. A long Net of Vice Presidents was named, among whom in addition to namas already given in connection with other meetings, were Blackwell Jackson, Cap- tain Moffatt, Henry Steinbeck and John Preston.

Dr. N. B. Barnes, H. Daugherty, Esias Fetty, Joseph Wilkinson and Robert Clark were appointed a committee on resolutions. “Stirring” addresses were made by Hon, J. B. Blair and Hon. Daniel Farnsworth, of Upshur Resolutions were filed and adopted expressing loyalty to the Union, calling on the people for support; all the leaders in the new State movement were endorsed and the actions of John 3. Carlile im Congress condemned.

On the question of the raising of troops it was reported “3—That we pledge ourselves to make ample pecuniary provision for those citizens who have already and may respond to the President’s July call for wolunteers and we earnestly request the county court new in session to issue summons to the body of magistrates of the county to convene at the court house—to lay a levy sufficient to pay the family or nearest, relative $40.00 for each recrnit.” The report of the meeting containg the further comment that “volunteering went on briskly throughout the whole day. One company was nearly filled. Three others on the way with flattering prospects. Such is the spirit of old Lewis.” Ib is gen- erally understeod that P. M, Hale advanced the county officials 95,000.00 to assist in financing,

A “new State’ meeting was held on Auguat 15th, presided over by R. R. Hinzeman, with Douglas M. Bailey, Secretary, Addresses were made by Dr. Hall and Dr. Barnes, and a resolution by Senator Blackwell Jackson adopted, which declared “that we desire a new State to be called West Virginia, next te putting down this unholy rebellion.”

On December Sth George J. Arnold resigned as a member of the Assembly. A special election was held on the 18th and P, M. Hale, who is deseribed “as every inch a reliable Union man,” was elected his suc- eessor, The “secession” element put up as a candidate Charles Post, and a report to the Wheeling Intelligencer declares that he received fifty-three votes in Weston.

The year 1863 opened with a “new State” celebration at Weston on New Year's Day. Captain Larkin Pierport was post commander, with Company E, Sixth (W.) Virginia Infantry, atationed at the local bar- racks. The town was “brilliantly Ulaminated,” and at headquarters thirty-five burning tapers represented the thirty-five States, which were deseribed by a reporter as a “magie sight.” A parade was held by local citizens, Pierpont’s company and a detachment of Lot Bewen's cavalry under Lieutenant William Levell. Terches were much in evidence and

EO ee ShCUCmCC~—t—tCO SS

18 LEWiS COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR

after listening to a speech a banguek was served at Francis Batten's, followed by “three cheers for West Virginia,”

A “big Union mass meeting” was held on March 9, 1863, with BH. Daugherty as chairman. Rubert Irvine delivered an address and explained that the meeting was to draft resolutions concerning the desire for a new State. George Simpson, L. 5. Ward, Minter Bafley, Esias Petty, Henry Steinbeck, A. D. Peterson, Richard Hall, Stephon Heros, Thomes Hardman, James Hayden, Christian Swecker and James Shea were appointed a resolutions committee, who drafted 2 strong report asking for a new State, and approving the activities of Irvine and P, M. Hale in the Wheeling conventions. Colonel John McWhorter, aged 7% years, being called upon, arose amid great applause and made a talle in which he set forth that he had desired this separation for thirty years and was glad that he would yet live to see it actually take place,

it soon became evident that West Virginia would be admitted to the Union. A meeting was held at Wheeling on February 19th, looking toward the holding of a convention to nominate officials for the new State. It was decided to held it at Parkersburg on May Oth. A meet- ing was held at Weston on April 13th, when the following delegates were named: Robert Irvine, Minter Bailey, Allen Simpson, ©. M. Ton- still, Esias Petty, A. D. Peterson, C. M. Hall, Samuel Olothier and : Thomas Hinaman. To the judicial and senatorial convention, P. M. Hale, W. L. Dunningten, R. H. Clark, Dr. J. A. Hall, A. FP. Moffett, George ©, Danser, Henry Steinbeck, Stephen Hughes and John 8, Ander- Son (1820-1846), of present Walkersville, Out of all this number it seems that only five were finally seated by the committee on credentials,

The result of this convention was the selection of candidates for all offices headed by Arthur I. Boreman for the first Governor. He was well known throvghoat Lewis County and polled 1,184 votes im the election held May 28th, June 20th found the county im the “full fledged” new State of West Virginia.

Men from this region affiliated with the Confederacy were, of course, not disposed to accept the resnlt of the activities of their old neighbors and a lest appeal addressed to “The people of Northwestern Virginia” was sent out Sepiember 24, 1868, It bore the names of Gideon D. Cam. den, Jonathan M. Bennett, William L. Jackson, Edwin Duncan Camden, Charles W. Newlon, L. S. Hall and others,

Presisy Martin Hale represented the cotnty in the first Legislature, which convened June 20, 1863, in which he was very active and took much interest in legislation pertaining to the creation of the free achool system. He was born near Morgantown, August 25, 1826, 2 son of Abraham and Sarah Taylor Hale, and died at Weston, January 18, 1916, He married (1) Sinae Shore, whe died in 1856, and (9) im 1958, Elizabeth Butcher, of Weston, whe died in 1904, From the time of his lecation in Weston in 1848 until 1861 he was a merchant associated with James G. Vandervort and George A. Jackson. Subsequent to the Civil War engaged in the contracting business, erecting many of the boviness

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THE SECESSION OF VIRGINIA 19

blocks in Weston, the first high schoo! building and much of the West Virginia Hospital, of which he served several terms as a director.

Aaron D. Peterson, who gave his address as “French Creek,” served in the second and third Legislatures, until March 8, 1865. James M. Corley, of near Weston, served in the Senate during the third session. In July, 1864, a convention was held at Weston to select delegates to the State convention at Grafton on August 3 to nominate candidates for the State offices and Presidential electors in the general election of October 22nd following, in which A. I. Boreman was re-elected. After a spirited local contest marked by many “flowery” addresses the follow- ing were selected: Allen Simpson, Dr. Silas W. Hall, Jesse Woofter, P. M. Hale, J. C. Wilkinson and Dr. Newton B. Barnes.

Turning to local county affairs it seems that Henry Steinbeck served, ag the first treasurer tmder the new State government as the Auditor's report of 1865 carries against him a charge for taxes collected. Gibson J. Butcher, who was Circuit Clerk at the beginning of the war, was suc- ceeded by George A. Jackson. John Morrow, for many years Clerk of the County Court, after his removal from office by Federal officers, was succeeded by Jesse Woofter. Taxes collected in 1864 were listed at $2,382.34, to which is added $51.75 collected as military fines. The total value of real estate in the county in 1860 was $1,424,843, which showed a decline te $1,257,787 by 1865. A law passed in 1863 provided for the forfeiture of lands belonging to those in the Southern service, but as a rule the board of supervisors took no action along this line. The prop- erty of J. M. Bennett and others, who were active southern partisans, was not molested.

CHAPTER TWO WESTON

Nestled among the ridges of the upper valley of the West. Fork of the Monongahela River, lies the modern city of Weston, teeming with activity, and numbering over 7,000 people in its population, But the county seat of Lewis in the days of 1260-66 differed but little from many villages of the Trans-Allegheny region. An inland town, 25 miles from a railroad, it was simply an independent, self-sufficient. and thrifty com- munity at the crossroads of the Weston and Gauley, and the Parkersburg and Staunton pikes. One might by removing from the picture some medern brick structures from the present town of Jane Lew, find in it a rough idea as to the size of Weston in 1860, with a population of approxi- mately 820.

At